The publishing company Springer has more than 245 engineering journals in its portfolio, covering a wide range of fascinating and timely topics, including social robotics, biomedical microdevices, and computational mechanics. When editors took stock of the works that had been the most cited, downloaded, and shared in 2016, it was an article from JOM, The Journal of the Minerals, Metals & Materials Society that stood out at number one in the category of Engineering.
That article, “Manufacturing and Security Challenges in 3D Printing,” was written by a team of Tandon researchers: Nikhil Gupta, noted materials expert and an associate professor of mechanical engineering at NYU Tandon; lead author Steven Eric Zeltmann, a graduate student in mechanical engineering; Ramesh Karri, professor of electrical and computer engineering; Michail Maniatakos, professor of electrical and computer engineering at NYU Abu Dhabi; Nektarios Tsoutsos, a doctoral student at NYU Abu Dhabi, and Jeyavijayan Rajendran, an assistant professor at The University of Texas at Dallas and former student of Karri.
Additive manufacturing (AM), commonly called 3D printing, is a $4 billion business set to quadruple by 2020. One day, manufacturers may print everything from cars to medicines, disrupting centuries-old production practices. The Federal Aviation Administration recently certified the first 3D-printed part for GE commercial jet engines, and companies like Ford Motor Company are using AM to build products and prototypes.
But the new technology poses some of the same dangers unearthed in the electronics industry, where trusted, partially trusted, and untrusted parties are part of a global supply chain.
That finding, along with initial recommendations for remedies, was the basis of the top-ranked paper. In it, the researchers examined two aspects of 3D printing that have cybersecurity implications: printing orientation and insertion of fine defects. “These are possible foci for attacks that could have a devastating impact on users of the end product, and economic impact in the form of recalls and lawsuits,” said Gupta.
Additive manufacturing builds a product from a computer assisted design (CAD) file sent by the designer. The manufacturing software deconstructs the design into slices and orients the printer head. The printer then applies material in ultra-thin layers.
The researchers reported that the orientation of the product during printing could make as much as a 25 percent difference in its strength. However, since CAD files do not give instructions for printer head orientation, malefactors could deliberately alter the process without detection. Gupta explained that economic concerns also influence how a supplier prints a product. “Minus a clear directive from the design team, the best orientation for the printer is one that minimizes the use of material and maximizes the number of parts you can print in one operation,” he said.
Karri, a cybersecurity researcher known for improving the trustworthiness of the microchip supply chain, explained: “With the growth of cloud-based and decentralized production environments, it is critical that all entities within the additive manufacturing supply chain be aware of the unique challenges presented to avoid significant risk to the reliability of the product.” He pointed out that an attacker could hack into a printer that is connected to Internet to introduce internal defects as the component is being printed. “New cybersecurity methods and tools are required to protect critical parts from such compromise,” he said.
When the researchers introduced sub-millimeter defects between printed layers, they found that the defects were undetectable by common industrial monitoring techniques, such as ultrasonic imaging, which do not require destruction of the sample. Over time, materials can weaken with exposure to fatigue conditions, heat, light, and humidity and become more susceptible to these small defects. “With 3D printed components, such as metallic molds made for injection molding used in high temperature and pressure conditions, such defects may eventually cause failure,” Gupta said.
“It is unsurprising that the world’s 3D printing community found the Tandon team’s paper so timely and compelling,” Dean Katepalli Sreenivasan said. “Tandon has long been at the cutting edge of cybersecurity studies, and we are currently blazing new trails in hardware security. Professor Gupta and his colleagues are doing seminal work that will have a major impact on industry and the world.”
In October 2017, Gupta will be helping to organize a global symposium on additive manufacturing. His earlier event, held in 2016, drew numerous leaders from academia, industry, and government to Brooklyn to discuss the future of the field.
Read the full version of “Manufacturing and Security Challenges in 3D Printing.” The Office of Naval Research helped fund the research.
By the numbers:
- Over 60 awards, including:
- Six NSF career awards
- Fourteen IEEE best paper awards
- Three IEEE fellows and two ACM fellows
- Over 10 teaching awards
- Over 225 academic papers that have received 100+ Google citations
- Among our faculty:
- Keith W. Ross: author of the most widely adopted international textbook on computer networking; fifth most popular non-introduction computer-science textbook overall.
- Boris Aronov: Fifth most prolific author in Discrete Computational Geometry, the flagship journal in the computational geometry field.
- Rumi Chunara, Phyllis Frankl,Juliana Freire, and Lisa Hellerstein: Four women among our 17 tenure and tenure-track professors.
- We have been awarded more than $30 million in research since 2009.
- We are a National Security Agency designated Center of Excellence in research, education, and cyber ops—one of the very few schools with all three designations.
Best Paper Awards
- Two Eurographics Educator Program Best Paper Awards (Juliana Freire and Claudio Silva)
- Eurographics Best Paper Award (Yi-Jen Chiang)
- Six IEEE Best Paper Awards (Juliana Freire,Claudio Silva twice, Nasir Memon, and Keith Ross twice)
- Eight IEEE VIS Awards (Enrico Bertini,Harish Doraiswamy,Juliana Freire, David Koop, Claudio Silva,Huy T. Vo, and Aritra Dasgupta)
- Five IEEE International Conference on Big Data Awards (Juliana Freire, Claudio Silva, and Torsten Suel)
- Eight ACM Awards (Boris Aronov, Juliana Freire, and Claudio Silva)
- Digital Forensics Research Conference (DFRWS) Best Paper Award (Nasir Memon)
- SIBGRAPI Best Paper Award (Claudio Silva)
- Infocom Best Paper Award (Keith Ross)
Lecture and panel awards
- IEEE Signal Processing Society; Distinguished Lecturer (Nasir Memon)
These citations, through Google Scholar, are an indication of the originality and necessity of a work of scholarly literature. The following papers were contributed to by members of our faculty.
Over 4,000 citations
- J. F. Kurose and K. W. Ross, "Computer networking: a top-down approach featuring the Internet," Pearson Education, 2012
Over 2,000 citations
- Paul A Yushkevich, Joseph Piven, Heather Cody Hazlett, Rachel Gimpel Smith, Sean Ho, James C Gee, and Guido Gerig, "User-guided 3D active contour segmentation of anatomical structures: significantly improved efficiency and reliability," Neuroimage, Vol. 1, Issue 3, 2006
Over 1,000 citations
- X. Hei, C. Liang, J. Liang, Y. Liu, and K. W. Ross, "A Measurement Study of a Large-Scale P2P IPTV System," IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 2007
- M. Alexa , J. Behr, D. Cohen-Or, S. Fleishman, D. Levin, and C. T. Silva, “Computing and Rendering Set Point Set Surfaces,” Visualization, 2001
- X. Wu and N. Memon, "Context-based, adaptive, lossless image coding," IEEE Transactions on Communications, 1997
- Guido Gerig, Olaf Kübler, Ron Kikinis, and Ferenc Jolesz, "Nonlinear anisotropic filtering of MRI data," IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging, Vol. 11, Issue 2, 1992
Over 500 citations from over 20 papers (showing papers published since 2000)
- A. Nealen, M. Müller, R. Keiser, E. Boxerman, and M. Carlson, "Physically based deformable models in computer graphics," Computer Graphics Forum 25 (4), 2006
- Sarang Joshi, Brad Davis, Matthieu Jomier, and Guido Gerig, "Unbiased diffeomorphic atlas construction for computational anatomy," NeuroImage, Vol. 23, 2004
- P. W. Wong, N. Memon, "Secret and public key image watermarking schemes for image authentication and ownership verification," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 10, Issue 10, 2001
- L. Moreau, B. Clifford, J. Freire, Y. Gil, P. Groth, J. Futrelle, N. Kwasnikowska, S. Miles, P. Missier, J. Myers, Y. Simmhan, E. Stephan, and J. Van den Bussche, "The open provenance model core specification (v1. 1)," Future Generation Computer Systems, 2011
- Karl Koscher, Alexei Czeskis, Franziska Roesner, Shwetak Patel, Tadayoshi Kohno, Stephen Checkoway, Damon McCoy, Brian Kantor, Danny Anderson, Hovav Shacham, and Stefan Savage, "Experimental security analysis of a modern automobile," IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2010
- Guido Gerig, et. al, "Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: birth through age 2 years," Archives of general psychiatry 62 (12), 1366-1376, 2005
- S. Wiedenbeck, J. Waters, J. C. Birget, A. Brodskiy, and N. Memon, "PassPoints: Design and longitudinal evaluation of a graphical password system," International journal of human-computer studies 63 (1), 102-127, 2005
- I. Avcibas, N. Memon, and B. Sankur, "Steganalysis using image quality metrics," IEEE transactions on Image Processing 12 (2), 221-229, 2003
- M. Holliman and N. Memon, "Counterfeiting attacks on oblivious block-wise independent invisible watermarking schemes," IEEE Transactions on image processing 9 (3), 432-441, 2000
- J. F. Kurose, K. W. Ross, and W. L. Zucchi, "Redes de Computadores ea Internet: uma abordagem top-down," Pearson, 2010
- C. Huang, J. Li, and K. W. Ross, "Can internet video-on-demand be profitable?" ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 37 (4), 133-144, 2007
- J. Kangasharju, J. Roberts, and K. W. Ross, "Object replication strategies in content distribution networks," Computer Communications 25 (4), 376-383, 2002
Over 200 citations from over 100 papers (showing papers published since 2010)
- Jason J Wolff, Hongbin Gu, Guido Gerig, Jed T Elison, Martin Styner, Sylvain Gouttard, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen R Dager, Geraldine Dawson, Annette M Estes, Alan C Evans, Heather C Hazlett, Penelope Kostopoulos, Robert C McKinstry, Sarah J Paterson, Robert T Schultz, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven, and IBIS Network, "Differences in white matter fiber tract development present from 6 to 24 months in infants with autism," American Journal of Psychiatry, 2014
- Stephen Checkoway, Damon McCoy, Brian Kantor, Danny Anderson, Hovav Shacham, Stefan Savage, Karl Koscher, Alexei Czeskis, Franziska Roesner, and Tadayoshi Kohno, "Comprehensive Experimental Analyses of Automotive Attack Surfaces," USENIX Security Symposium, 2011
- H. Lam, E. Bertini, P. Isenberg, C. Plaisant, and S. Carpendale, "Empirical studies in information visualization: Seven scenarios," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18 (9), 1520-1536, 2012
- R. Chunara, J. R. Andrews, and J. S. Brownstein, "Social and news media enable estimation of epidemiological patterns early in the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak," The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 86 (1), 39-45, 2012
- J. Freire, et. al, "The ALPS project release 2.0: open source software for strongly correlated systems," Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 2011 (05), P05001, 2011
- Heather Cody Hazlett, Michele D Poe, Guido Gerig, Martin Styner, Chad Chappell, Rachel Gimpel Smith, Clement Vachet, and Joseph Piven, "Early brain overgrowth in autism associated with an increase in cortical surface area before age 2 years," Archives of general psychiatry 68 (5), 467-476, 2011
- Damon McCoy, et. al, "A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names," Proceedings of the 2013 conference on Internet measurement conference, 127-140, 2013
- J. Togelius, G. N. Yannakakis, K. O. Stanley, and C. Browne, "Search-based procedural content generation: A taxonomy and survey," IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games 3 (3), 172-186, 2011
- G. N. Yannakakis and J. Togelius, "Experience-driven procedural content generation," IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing 2 (3), 147-161, 2011